Great Wall, one of the most remarkable
feat of mankind, whose segments were built as long ago
as 500 B.C. Archaeologists estimate that the Wall once
ran 6200 miles; today it is still impressive at 3,750
miles. Serious work began in 220 B.C, when China's first
emperor Qin Shihuang, conscripted millions of soldiers
and peasants to participate in this dangerous undertaking.
Constructions continued over the centuries, with the
most impressive portions built during the 14th century
The section adjacent to Juyong Pass
and Badaling Hill, 85 kilometers north of Beijing, is
typical of the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty. The Wall
at Badaling is 8.5 meters high and 5.7 meters broad.
Five horses or ten people can walk along it abreast.
There are ramparts, embrasures, peep-holes and apertures
for archers on the top, besides gutters with gargoyles
to drain rainwater off the parapet walk. Two-storied
of the watch-towers were designed for observing enemy
movements, while the first was used for string grain,
fodder, military equipment and gunpowder, as well as
for quartering garrison soldiers. The highest watch-tower
at Badaling stands on a hill-top and is reached only
after a steep climb, like "climbing a ladder to
heaven". The view from the top is rewarding however.
The Wall follows the contour of mountains that rise
on behind the other until they finally fade and merge
with distant haze.
Situated in Huairou county, 72 km
northeast of Beijing, the Great Wall winds its wayon
the Yanshan Mountain, 20 km north of Huairou. Mutianyu
stands in the east opposite Badaling, which is in the
west. It connects Gubeikou Pass in the north and Huanghuachengin
Badaling, Juyongguan Pass, Zijingguan Pass and Daomaguan
Pass used to be three main barriers northeast of Beijing
during the Ming Dynasty. The Great Wall was extended
to this place from Shanhaiguan Pass in the reigning
years of Hong Wu. The section was completed by the reigning
years of Wan Li.
Magnificent in appearance the Mutianyu Great Wall has
been preserved intact. Here vegetation is abundant and
fruit trees abound. The scenic beauty in spring and
autumn is excellent. It is like a garden on a mountain
top. We find scenic spots, such as Lianhuachi(lake),
Zhenzhuquan (spring) and Longtan (lake) in the neighborhood.
Mutianyu is a place for tourists to go and enjoy the
beauty of Chinese landscape.
In 1982 funds were allocated by government departments
concerned to repair the wall. In additional funds have
been provided from the donation campaign. More repairs
can be undertaken on big scale. It is expected that
Mutianyu Great Wall will attract even more visitors.
Located in Qinhuangdao by the Bobal
Sea, Shanhaiguan is an important pass in the eastern
Great Wall. It was reconstructed by the Ming Dynasty.
Work continued until the end of the dynasty. The wall
connects itself from the Yanshan Mountain with the sea.
It provides the only and best scenery of beautiful sea
and beautiful mountain in one setting. Shanhaiguan was
proclaimed a key historic monument by the State Council
in 1961.Construction had been launched by the historic
relics departments to repair Shanhaiguan over a period
of about 30 years, but only on limited scale, far from
meeting the demand of growing tourism.
In 1985 the government, this time aided by private donations,
started an overall repair job. From Yanshan Mountain
southward to the sea at Laolongtou, scores km long Great
Wall plus mountain pass and mounds are listed for repair
each year. First phase repair works are now started
on Ninghaicheng with donation of 700,000 yuan from Shanghai.
Dilapidated city towers, corner towers and watch towers
are scheduled to be restored to original shape.
This lies within Luanping county,
Hebei province, 130 km from Beijing. It used to be under
the jurisdiction of Gubeilu, an important doorway in
the northeast defence line of the Ming Dynasty.
Surveys were done here by the Historic Relics Bureau
and the Ministry of Culture in1981. The magnificence
of this section is equal to that of Badaling. On this
account Jinshanling is named second Badaling. This section
is now known to friends abroad and people at home. For
three years in succession funds have been allocated
by the State to repair this section, aided by recent
donations. Highway and tourist services have been projected
to be built. One of the most magnificent parts of the
Great Wall will shortly be opened to public.
This was an important pass under
the Jizhou fortressed town in the Ming Dynasty, lying20
km northeast of Jixian county, Tianjin. The precipitous
cliff called Huangya is in a strategic position, with
the Great Wall winding its way across mountains and
ridges. Built in the early years of the Ming Dynasty
it was completed only by Qi Jiguang, commander of Jizhou
fortressed town in the reigning years of Long Qing.
The Huangyaguan Pass of the Great Wall has certain special
features in structure. Stone slabs, bricks and stones
faced with bricks have been used. Watchtowers are rectangular,
round in shape, also built with the same materials.
It is a section of the Great Wall much to be valued.
The layout of the architecture is unique. Within the
mountain pass city wall we find a network of T-Shaped
road junctions or crooked ruler so that when the enemy
enters into the city he can hardly find his way. The
entangled paths are an outstanding piece of defence
This section of the wall, however, has been even more
badly damaged than other sections. Since such a historic
monument is difficult to find elsewhere in Tianjin,
first class industrialized seaport in China, a large
sum was soon collected when the campaign for fund to
rebuild the section got started. Surveying by technicians
was immediately undertaken. The first phase of construction
-- 800 m wall and watch towers will soon be completed.
Jixian county, ancient town east of Beijing will welcome
visitors from abroad and at home with its excellent
scenic beauty of mountains, the Dulesi Temple (built
of wood, 1,000 years ago) and the White Pagoda in Guanyinsi
Temple in strange shape, and of course Huangyaguan Pass
Great Wall itself.
It is the western terminus of the
Great Wall, built more than 600 years ago. Its magestic
and solid construction is so full of power and grandeur
that it has been praised as "Mighty Pass No.1 Under
Heaven". Unlike the Shanhaiguan Pass or the Jurongguan
Pass on the Grear Wall, it neastles against the Qilian
Mountains and Gobi Desert and is therefore imposiong
in its own way. It was a strategic point at the western
section of the Great Wall of ming Dynastu(1368-1644)
and is the best preserved pass along the entire length
of the wall. It is a magnificent castle, composed of
an inner and an outer section, an enclosed gateway,
a gate tower, watch towers and parapets.
Situated 75km northwest of Dunhuang,
the Jade Gate Pass was a strategic pass on the ancient
Silk Road. It was so named because the jade of Honan
in what is now Xinjiang region was transported to central
China through this pass. In his poem Go North of Great
Wall, the Tang Dynasty poet Wang Zhihuan had the famous
line, " Beyong the Yumen Pass the breath of Sring
has never crossed". The mention of Yumen in the
poem has made the pass all the more famous.